Text Types

Text Types

Recount

Discussion

Narrative

Exposition

Procedure

Description

Information Report

Poetry

Explanation

Response

Recount

Recounts ‘tell what happened’. The purpose of a factual recount is to document a series of events and evaluate their significance in some way. The purpose of the literary or story recount is to tell a sequence of events so that it entertains. The story recount has expressions of attitude and feeling, usually made by the narrator about the events (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.29)

Purpose:

To reconstruct past experiences by retelling events in the order in which they have occurred.

Structure:

1. Orientation – background information about who, where and when.

2. Series of events in chronological order.

3. A personal comment.

Narrative

Narratives construct a pattern of events with a problematic and/or unexpected outcome that entertains and instructs the reader or listener. Narratives entertain because they deal with the unusual and unexpected development of events. They instruct because they teach readers and listeners that problems should be confronted, and attempts made to resolve them. Narratives incorporate patterns of behaviour that are generally highly valued (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.37) .

Purpose:

To tell a story

Structure:

1. Orientation – who/what, where and when.

2. Complication

3. Series of events.

4. Resolution.

Procedure

Procedures tell how to do something. This might include instructions for how to carry out a task or play a game, directions for getting to a place, and rules of behaviour (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.45) .

Purpose:

To show how something is accomplished through a series of steps.

Structure:

1. Opening statement of goal or aim.

2. Materials required listed in order of use.

3. Series of steps listed in chronological order.

Information Report

Information reports are used to present information about something. They generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, computers, countries of the region, transport, and so on (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.53).

Purpose:

To present factual information about a class of things, usually by classifying them and then describing their characteristics.

Structure:

1. Opening general definition or classification.

2. Sequence of related statements about topic.

3. Concluding statement.

Explanation

Explanations tell how and why things occur in scientific and technical fields (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.61).

Purpose:

To explain how or why things are as they are, or how things work.

Structure:

1. A general statement.

2. A series of events in chronological order.

3. Concluding statement.

Discussion

Discussions are used to look at more than one side of an issue. Discussions allow us to explore various perspectives before coming to an informed decision (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.69).

Purpose:

To present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue.

Structure:

1. Opening statement presenting the issue.

2. Arguments or evidence for different points of view.

3. Concluding recommendation.

Exposition

Expositions are used to argue a case for or against a particular position or point of view (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.71).

Purpose:

To put forward an argument or particular point of view.

Structure:

1. Point of view is stated.

2. Justification of arguments in a logical order.

3. Summing up of argument.

Description

Descriptions focus our attention on the characteristic features of a particular thing, eg Toby the Mongrel (as opposed to information reports, which deal with a general class of things, eg hunting dogs). The subject might be a person, eg Grandpa, a place, eg our house, or a thing, eg my favourite toy. It might be impressionistic/imaginative, eg a description as a poem or part of a narrative, or an objective description, eg of a robbery suspect.  While descriptions can occur as ‘stand alone’ texts, they are often part of a longer text, such as the description of a character or setting in a story or biography. Although they might not always be seen as a distinct text type, it is felt that the ability to describe someone or something in detail is an important skill that can contribute to a number of different text types (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.85).

Purpose:

To describe the characteristic features of a particular thing.

Structure:

1. Opening statement – introduction to the subject.

2. Characteristic features of the subject.

3. Concluding statement (optional).

Poetry

Poetry is a channel of communication that is used to achieve a range of social purposes.  Poetry expresses feelings and reflections on experience, people and events. Poetry is an aesthetic experience that works mainly through our emotions, sensory experiences and imaginative perceptions. A poem may focus on the individual feelings and reflections of the poet, or it may tell a story, or describe people, places and things, in distinctive and sometimes unusual ways.  Poetry is often written with the expectation that it will be read aloud. In poetic language, sound patterns and rhythmic qualities are an important part of the meaning. Some poems may make use of regular patterns of rhyme and rhythm while others make use of free verse form. The sound qualities in poems are emphasised by devices such as rhythm, alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia.  Poetic texts often contain images that are expressed in striking ways. These images may be presented through different kinds of techniques such as simile, metaphor and personification.  The main purpose for teaching poetry should be to provide for students’ enjoyment and appreciation of ideas and language in poetry lessons. Poetry includes a range of text types such as narrative, recount and description. It is a channel of communication for different text types (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.93).

Response

Responses are used to summarise, analyse and respond to literary texts. They may be a personal response or a review (Board of Studies, 1998, English K-6 Modules, p.177).

Purpose:

To respond personally or to review a text.

Structure – Personal Response:

1. Context – background information on the text.

2. Personal opinion and/or reaction.

Structure – Review:

1. Context – background information on the text.

2. Description of the text (including characters and plot).

3. Concluding statement (judgement, opinion or recommendation).

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